Report for the Simple and Fractional Distillation Experiment
The report consists of three main parts:
1a.) The first page of the Report Form is the raw data from each of the two distillations that is in your notebook. Please write neatly and in ink. Type or word-process if you wish. The second page can only be filled out after you complete the graphs and analyze the data.
2.) Prepare individual graphs for each of the distillations. Follow rules of good graphing: the plot should fill most of the graph area, there should be an informative title, the axes should be labeled. Begin your temperature axis at about 4-5 degrees prior to the actual distillation temperature (do not begin at room temperature -- why not?). You can hand-draw the graphs on graph paper (use a straight-edge) or you can generate graphs from a spreadsheet or graphing program (preferable). See an example.
As you inspect the graphs, look most closely at the one from the Vigreux fractional column distillation. You should be able to tell fairly clearly the areas of the graph that correspond to (mostly) ethyl acetate distilling and to (mostly) butyl acetate distilling since you know their respective boiling points. If there is not a clear separation of the two, you will have to make some assumptions about the composition of the volume that was not clearly separated (you will explain the assumptions in the analysis section, below). On the graph itself, clearly designate which part of the total [distillate+pot residue] you will use for the estimation of ethyl acetate and which part you will use for the estimation of butyl acetate. Repeat this analysis for the simple distillation. All distillation fractions must be included.
Keep a copy of your graphs for the next experiment.
1b.) You should now be able to calculate the volume percent of each of the two components in the unknown mixture for each of the distillations. For this, you need a total volume and you will need to explain and justify your choice of total volume in the analysis section. The volume percentages for the components must equal 100% of the volume recovered.
After you have determined the volume percent composition, you can convert to mole percent composition (using literature values for density and molecular weight), a more useful quantity. Record the results of these calculations on the second page of the report form.
All calculations should be shown neatly on a separate page, clearly labeled. The calculations should be done in your notebook on pages that are a continuation of the Distillation experiment in your notebook (and so properly titled and dated). Turn in the copy as part of your report and keep the original in your notebook.
3.) The summary of results should include: a short introduction about the goal of the distillation experiment, what types of distillation were performed, how the data were collected; an analysis of your data, including specifiying what assumptions you used in deciding the composition of the various distillation fractions you collected in the simple and fractional distillations; a conclusion based on your results where the emphasis is on comparing and contrasting the relative efficiencies of the two types of distillation your team performed. "Efficiency" is demonstrated by a good separation of the components in the mixture. Explicitly compare the mole % calculated for each distillation method.
This is not the place to discuss distillation theory or to re-write the procedure. If something went horribly awry with a distillation, this would be the place to briefly explain it.
The summary should be typed. Please use 1-inch margins, 12-pt font, and double-spaced. If you find yourself with more than 2 pages, it is too long. Please edit it for conciseness and clarity.
Assemble your report in this order: report form pages, calculations, graphs, written summary.
You will be graded on your adherence to these instructions.